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Date: 101

"But if you consider what is proper for a man, examine your store-house, see with what faculties you came into the world."

— Epictetus (c. 55-c.135)

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Date: 101

"I mean the things which belong to him as a man, the marks (stamps) in his mind with which he came into the world, such as we seek also on coins, and if we find them, we approve of the coins, and if we do not find the marks, we reject them."

— Epictetus (c. 55-c.135)

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Date: 2nd Century CE

"The soul provides nature with the reason for the [presence or absence of] life, for even though it does not possess the same number of atoms as the body, being placed in it with its rational and non-rational elements, still it encompasses the whole body and, being bound by it, binds it in turn, ...

— Diogenes of Oenoanda (2nd Century CE)

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Date: c. 160 A.D.

"I need not trouble you with his criticisms of the other two; but his objection to the man, and the fault he found with Hephaestus, was this: he should have made a window in his chest, so that, when it was opened, his thoughts and designs, his truth or falsehood, might have been apparent."

— Lucian of Samosata (125 A.D. - 180 A.D.)

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Date: 167

"[T]hou canst at a moment's notice retire into thyself"

— Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

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Date: 170

"The heart is, as it were, the hearthstone and source of the innate heat by which the animal is governed."

— Galen (129-200)

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Date: 250

The "one-in-many" soul derives from "not-in-many" as if it were an image stamped by one ring on many pieces of wax

— Plotinus (c. 205-270)

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Date: 250

The Soul "makes them living beings not by merging into body but by giving forth, without any change in itself, images or likenesses of itself like one face caught by many mirrors"

— Plotinus (c. 205-270)

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Date: 3rd Century

"The black color of Ethiopia, my homeland, became my lot when it was engendered by the fiery rays of the sun. But my soul, full of white blossoms, won the favor of my understanding master; for beauty is inferior to the nobility of the soul shrouded by my black body."

— Anonymous

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Date: 250

"When the Intellect is in upward orientation that [lower part of it] which contains [or, corresponds to] the life of the Soul, is, so to speak, flung down again and becomes like the reflection resting on the smooth and shining surface of a mirror; in this illustration, when the mirror is in place...

— Plotinus (c. 205-270)

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The Mind is a Metaphor is authored by Brad Pasanek, Assistant Professor of English, University of Virginia.