"In this design of Martin to investigate the diseases of the mind, he thought nothing so necessary as an enquiry after the seat of the soul; in which at first he laboured under great uncertainties."
— Pope, Alexander (1688-1744); Arbuthnot, John (bap. 1677, d. 1735)
He now conjectured it was more of the dignity of the soul to perform several operations by her little ministers, the animal spirits, from whence it was natural to conclude that she resides in different parts according to different inclinations, sexes, ages, and professions. Thus in epicures he seated her in the brain, soldiers in their hearts, women in their tongues, fiddlers in their fingers, and rope-dancers in their toes.
At length he grew fond of the glandula pinealis, dissecting many subjects to find out the different figure of this gland, from whence he might discover the cause of the different tempers in mankind. He supposed that in factious and restless-spirited people he should find it sharp and pointed, allowing no room for the soul to repose herself; that in quiet tempers it was flat, smooth and soft, affording the soul as it were an easy cushion. He was confirmed in this by observing that calves and philosophers, tigers and statesmen, foxes and sharpers, peacocks and fops, cock sparrows and coquettes, monkeys and players, courtiers and spaniels, moles and misers, exactly resemble one another in the conformation o fthe pineal gland. He did not doubt likewise to find the same resemblance in highwaymen and conquerors. In order to satisfy himself in which, it was that he purchased the body of one of the first species (as hath before related) at Tyburn; hoping in time to have the happiness of one of the latter too, under his anatomical knife
(Chapter XII, pp. 59-60)
See Memoirs of the Extraordinary Life, Works, and Discoveries of Martinus Scriblerus. By Mr. Pope (Dublin: Printed by and for George Faulkner, 1741). <Link to ECCO-TCP>
Reading Memoirs of the Extraordinary Life, Works, and Discoveries of Martinus Scriblerus (London: Hesperus Press, 2002). [From which much of my text was originally transcribed.]